2018 Predictions | Future Timeline | Technology


At some point during this period, the USA is struck by the most devastating earthquake in its history

The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a 600 mile-long converging plate boundary stretching from northern California to southern British Columbia. The fault causes a major earthquake about once every 300 years. Compared to other fault lines, this is an unusually long return time – resulting in greater stress build-up and stronger subsequent earthquakes. The last major event (a so-called megathrust quake) took place in 1700 and was estimated to have had a magnitude of at least 9.0.

Since then, the movement of the two plates has steadily built up pressure. In the first half of the 21st century, the fault exceeds the vast majority of previous time intervals in recorded history.* During this time, the plates finally slip, resulting in the single most devastating earthquake in United States history.*** It is centred on the state of Oregon, with a duration of several minutes, inflicting deadly damage to major population centres like Portland, Seattle, Olympia and even Vancouver and Victoria. Of course, many structures have been retrofitted and are able to withstand the earthquake, along with the majority of newer buildings. However, years of economic trouble, as well as a general inexperience of large earthquakes, have left many structures vulnerable.

Bridges and highways collapse, while the ground in the Seattle bay area liquefies, dragging buildings underwater. Broken gas mains and power lines spark many fires. The quake generates massive tsunamis,* which inundate coastal communities from California to Alaska. These giant waves are sent racing across the Pacific, causing damage as far away as Hawaii and Japan. Millions are left without power, while emergency responders struggle to adapt to the scale of the disaster. The death toll quickly reaches into the thousands, while the financial cost exceeds $100 billion. Along with the similarly devastating southern California earthquake, this disaster pushes much of the American west coast toward financial ruin.

cascadia future earthquake


Uganda is an oil-producing nation

Commercially viable oil in Uganda was discovered in 2006, with an estimated 3.5 billion barrels of reserves. However, it would take over a decade for production to start, due to a series of political, social, economic and technical issues. These included a lack of transparency in the planning process, corruption among officials, intimidation and poor compensation of local residents, sluggish progress in determining the best infrastructure, and general bureaucracy.

By 2012, a total of 77 wells had been drilled and investigated, with 70 showing potential for profit. In 2013 the government finally reached an agreement with Tullow Oil of the United Kingdom, Total of France and the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), to build both the oil refinery and pipeline. Uganda also partnered with the neighbouring countries of South Sudan, Kenya and Rwanda to take up ownership in the planned oil refinery. Once the remaining issues were worked out, construction would begin in 2014, with first production in 2018.*

Most of the oil was located in the Albertine Graben region, a 45 by 500 km stretch of lush green vegetation, home to about half of Africa’s bird species, along with baboons, antelopes and elephants. Serious concerns were therefore raised by environmentalists, but these were dismissed by the government. With at least 30 years of production capacity, Uganda would undergo an economic boom – bringing electricity to the 90% who had lived without it, boosting its education and healthcare systems, and shifting the nation into the league of upper-middle-income countries.

This new-found wealth could not last, however. In the longer term, serious environmental problems would plague not just Uganda, but much of the African continent. Landlocked and lying directly on the equator, Uganda was exposed to extreme climate risks, including substantial changes in rainfall and humidity.*

Click to enlarge

2018 predictions uganda oil map
Uganda oil map. Credit: Heritage Oil


some point during this period, a major earthquake hits California

had been warning for years that it wasn’t a matter of “if”
– but “when” a major earthquake
would strike the Los Angeles basin.* This particular quake is of sufficient magnitude
to cause tens of billions of dollars’ worth of economic damage, with much loss of human life. Thousands of buildings
are destroyed and there is widespread damage to roads, bridges and other infrastructure.

prediction california earthquake 2010 2012 2037


South Korean city Pyeongchang hosts the Winter Olympics

The 2018 Winter Olympics take place from 9th February to 25th February 2018, in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The elected host city was announced by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in July 2011. Pyeongchang won on its third consecutive bid, having lost previously to Vancouver in Canada and Sochi in Russia. It is the first Winter Olympic Games and second Olympic Games in South Korea; the 1988 Summer Olympics were held in Seoul. Pyeongchang is also the third Asian city to host the Winter Games after Sapporo, Japan (1972) and Nagano, Japan (1998). It is the first Winter Olympic Games since 1992 to be held in a ski resort town. In June 2015, four new disciplines were approved for inclusion in the games: snowboarding big air; curling mixed doubles; speed skating mass start and Alpine skiing team.

2018 winter olympics timeline

Launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope intended to search for extrasolar planets using the transit method. It is part of NASA’s long-running “Explorer” program which has been going since 1958 and involves working with a variety of other institutions and businesses. In this case, the $200m project is led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with seed funding from Google.

Equipped with four wide-angle telescopes and charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors totalling 192 megapixels, TESS conducts a two-year all-sky survey focussed on nearby G, K and M-type stars with apparent magnitudes brighter than 12. Around 500,000 are studied – more than triple the 156,000 that Kepler was designed to observe – including the 1,000 closest red dwarfs. The region of sky covered is also 400 times bigger.

Several thousand Earth-sized and larger exoplanets are identified, adding to the already huge tally from Kepler. Many of these candidate worlds are later investigated by the James Webb and other telescopes to enable more detailed analysis of their masses, sizes, orbits and atmospheres.

In order to obtain unobstructed imagery of both the northern and southern hemispheres of the sky, TESS utilises a 2:1 lunar resonant orbit that has never been used before. The spacecraft’s 373,000 km (232,000 mi) apogee is timed to keep the craft away from the Moon, which acts as a destabilising agent. This highly elliptical orbit remains stable for decades, and keeps the TESS’s cameras in a suitable temperature range. The majority of the orbit is spent outside the Van Allen belts to avoid radiation damage. Every 13.7 days at its perigee of 108,000 km (67,000 mi), TESS downlinks the data it has collected over a period of approximately three hours.

Originally planned for 2017, the TESS mission is delayed until 17th April 2018,* when it is placed into orbit by a SpaceX Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

tess 2018 telescope future timeline
Credit: NASA

The first image of a black hole

Black holes are points in space with so much mass and gravitational pull that nothing – not even light itself – can escape them. These astronomical anomalies were first proposed by English astronomer John Michell in 1784. Albert Einstein predicted black holes and the curvature of spacetime in 1915 with his general theory of relativity. The term “black hole” was coined in 1964 when science journalist Ann Ewing wrote her article, “‘Black Holes’ in Space“. However, it was not until 1971 that the first black hole candidate (Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868) was identified.

In 1994, the Hubble Space Telescope provided the best evidence to date of so-called “supermassive” black holes; its spectrograph revealed large orbiting velocities around the cores of some galaxies, suggesting a huge mass inside a very small region. In 2002, astronomers at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics presented evidence that a supermassive black hole lurked at the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Further observations by a team from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) presented even stronger evidence for this object, known as Sagittarius A*, in 2004.

Dozens of stellar black holes had been identified by the early 21st century, along with many intermediate and supermassive candidates. A major scientific milestone was achieved in 2016 when the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) announced the first direct detection of gravitational waves, resulting from a binary black hole merger.*

However, direct visual imagery of black holes remained elusive. By their very nature, it was known that they did not emit light or electromagnetic radiation – except for hypothetical Hawking radiation – so astrophysicists hunting for them were generally relying on indirect observations. For example, black holes could sometimes be inferred to exist by studying the gravitational interactions with their surroundings.

In 2006, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) began its first data capture. This was a project to create a large telescopic array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes and combining data from several very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) stations around the Earth. The aim was to observe the immediate environment of the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*, as well as the even larger black hole in the distant galaxy Messier 87, with angular resolution comparable to the black hole’s event horizon. The many independent radio antennae of the EHT, separated by hundreds or even thousands of miles, would be used in concert to form a giant “virtual” telescope with an effective diameter of the entire Earth. Each year, the EHT array was reconfigured to add more observatories to its global network. Their combined power, equivalent to being able to spot a golf ball on the Moon’s surface, would allow the event horizon of each black hole to be witnessed, hence the telescope’s name.

In April 2017, the EHT project collected the final data needed to form the first real picture of a black hole. This amounted to 500 terabytes for each station. Processing such an incredible amount of data was beyond the scope of each individual observatory, so the hard drives were shipped to a central facility at MIT’s Haystack Observatory. The analysis was delayed, however, because one of the stations was located at the South Pole and had closed for the winter, with no flights out between February and October.* The data was finally delivered in December 2017. After the analysis of a complete data set from all the stations in the EHT global network, on a grid computer made from 800 CPUs connected through a 40 Gbit/s network, the first direct image of a black hole would be released in the first half of 2018.*

In addition to producing an iconic scientific image, the EHT enables the testing of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. For example, whether the black hole has the right size as predicted by general relativity; whether the event horizon is circular (as predicted), or oblate or prolate; whether the radio emissions extend farther than thought; or whether there are any other deviations from the expected behaviour.*

black hole 2018 image
Simulated image of a supermassive black hole and its event horizon.
Credit: Monika Moscibrodzka (Radboud University).

hosts the FIFA World Cup

The 2018 FIFA World Cup is held in Russia from 14th June to 15th July 2018. This is
the first time that Russia has hosted the World Cup. Some $10 billion is
spent on the tournament, which is spread over 14 venues including
Moscow and St. Petersburg. As of 2010,
there were no stadia in the country with 80,000+ capacities, but Luzhniki
Stadium in Moscow is expanded to 90,000 seats in time for the games. France beat Croatia in the final, winning 4-2.

East Africa’s largest ever infrastructure project

This year sees a major rail network completed in East Africa.* Built by a Chinese state-owned firm and part-funded by China’s government, the $14bn Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) is the largest infrastructure project in the region’s history. The SGR connects a number of major cities – greatly boosting trade and investment while reducing the times needed to move people and goods across borders. The cost of sending a tonne of freight one kilometre is slashed from $0.20 to $0.08, with a typical journey between Nairobi and the port city of Mombasa cut from 12 hours to just four. Until now, the region had relied almost exclusively on road transport.

2018 east africa rail map

The Japanese Hayabusa-2 probe arrives at 1999 JU3

1999 JU3 is an Apollo asteroid – a group of asteroids whose orbits take them into the main belt, before drifting back towards Earth’s vicinity. In 2018, this kilometre-sized rock is investigated by Japan’s space agency, JAXA. The mission involves a probe, Hayabusa-2, launched in 2014 and arriving four years later.* The spacecraft is equipped with a “cannon” that fires a 7 kg (15.4 lb) explosive projectile at a velocity of 2 km/s. This impacts the asteroid’s surface with such force that a new crater is formed, with a camera filming the event from above. Hayabusa-2 then lands in the crater – scooping up samples for analysis back on Earth. It is hoped that water and organic materials in these samples may help to explain the origin of life.

hayabusa 2 probe 2018

Completion of the 100,000 Genomes Project

The 100,000 Genomes Project is a £300 million (US$467m) effort to sequence the genomes of National Health Service (NHS) patients in England. It was first announced in 2012, with the project expected to run until late 2018.* By utilising such a large sample size, it was hoped that common genetic traits behind a number of cancers and rare diseases could be identified, paving the way for new diagnostic tools, drugs and other treatments.

When the Human Genome Project was initiated in 1990, it cost $3 billion and required 13 years to complete. However, the time and expense of mapping a whole human genome began to fall exponentially, at a rate even faster than Moore’s Law witnessed in computer chips.* By the early 2010s it was possible to sequence a person’s DNA for less than $10,000 in a few days, and by 2014, machines capable of $1,000 genomes had appeared.* A new era of personalised genomics was beginning to emerge.*

The 100,000 Genomes Project would take advantage of these revolutionary advances to create a large-scale database combining genetic information with personal health records, helping researchers to better understand disease and their complex relationship with genes. Doctors could then predict how well a person would respond to a particular treatment, or find one that worked best for their specific case. Health organisations could more accurately track the spread of infectious disease, precisely pinpointing the source and nature of an outbreak. All data in the 100,000 Genomes Project is anonymous.*

England is the first country to undertake such a task on a national scale, but even larger projects follow in subsequent years, as genome sequencing continues to improve in both cost and speed. By 2020, tens of millions of human genomes have been sequenced. By 2040, these systems are ubiquitous in countries around the world.* The impact of personalised medicine is on a scale similar to penicillin and the smallpox vaccine.*

100000 genomes project 2015 2018

The Transbay Transit Center is opened in San Francisco

Over the years, the population of California continued to grow and grow. This created some of the worst urban traffic problems in America. One of the places most badly affected was the San Francisco Bay Area.

The main transport hub in downtown San Francisco had since 1939 been the original Transbay Terminal, located in the South of Market Neighborhood near the Financial District. In 2010, however, to address increasing stresses on the transportation system, this old station was demolished to make way for a new and high-tech development – something that had been in planning since the 1960s.

After demolition began in 2010, a temporary station was built to handle traffic over the seven year construction period. The first phase of the project would be completed in June 2018* and included a five storey, million square foot Transit Center, featuring new bus terminals – each with ramps connecting the stations to a new off-site bus storage facility and the nearby Oakland Bay Bridge. A 5.4 acre park would be built on top. The highly efficient design of the new bus ramp system opened up parcels of land for a series of buildings alongside the transit terminal. This part of the project, spread across 40 acres, consisted of low and mid-rise buildings, in addition to skyscrapers. The program creates 4,400 new homes, over 6 million square feet of new offices and 100,000 square feet of retail. The centrepiece of this development would be the Salesforce Tower (formerly called the Transbay Tower). Reaching a height of 326 metres (1,070 ft), it is the tallest ever building in San Francisco, surpassing the Transamerica Pyramid that held the title since 1972.

After the initial opening, the second phase would be the Downtown Rail Extension. This 2 km (1.3 mile) line, primarily underground, connects the California commuter line, Caltrain, to downtown San Francisco, linking the city to the Peninsula, San Jose and Silicon Valley. This major extension opens the doors for new jobs and very rapid commutes in and out of the city. It is also made to accommodate the future California High Speed Rail Line.

This project is designed with the environment in mind. Its open design allows for natural light, low-energy ventilation and passive cooling. LED lights are used extensively and many buildings (including the Salesforce Tower) are outfitted with wind turbines. Another key feature is that the entire development is built to withstand earthquakes; a likely possibility in the Bay Area.

Once completed, the Transbay Transit Center helps to accommodate the rapidly growing population of California – predicted to rise from 37 million in 2010 to around 51 million by 2030.

The NHS begins high-energy proton therapy in England

High-energy proton beam therapy is a revolutionary form of cancer treatment offering greater precision with fewer side effects. The concept was first described and theorised in 1946, but it took more than 40 years before the first hospital-based proton therapies were brought online and even then, these were limited to low-energy cyclotrons for only a small number of patients. However, the early 21st century saw major progress in the research, development and deployment of high-energy proton beam therapy. By 2015, the USA was home to nearly 20 treatment centres, with many more in countries around the world.

The National Health Service (NHS) in the UK had been sending patients abroad, mostly to the USA, at an average cost of £100,000 per case. The vast majority of these were children. As the number of these operations was increasing rapidly – and with only a single, low-energy proton beam facility available in the country – the British government announced £250 million in funding for two advanced radiotherapy centres, in London and Manchester. These would offer high-energy proton beam therapy to NHS patients in England, starting in August 2018.*

Public opinion of this treatment received a major boost in 2016, after the publication of a study in The Lancet, confirming that it was indeed safer than conventional X-ray radiotherapy.* Better precision allowed the beams to deposit most of their energy in the final stage of their journey, reducing the risk of damage to tissue surrounding the tumour – thus allowing higher treatment doses with fewer side effects.*

Enterprise-grade SSDs reach 128TB of capacity

Solid state drives (SSDs) have recently begun to overtake spinning drives in terms of storage capacity.* The largest of the enterprise-grade models are now reaching 128TB of capacity, with conventional HDDs lagging further behind. The gap between these storage methods will continue to accelerate as flash memory and similar technologies reach unprecedented densities in the 2020s.* The demand for consumer versions is being driven by rapid growth in 4K video adoption, enormous video game file sizes and other data-hungry applications.

solid state drives future timeline

InSight touches down on Mars

InSight is a space probe launched by NASA to Mars in 2018. The mission name stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. The stationary lander is placed on the surface of Mars, equipped with a seismometer and heat flow probe that drills 5 metres (16 ft) below ground – deeper than all previous arms, scoops, drills and probes.

InSight’s main objective is to conduct an advanced study into the early geological processes that shaped Mars. The Solar System’s rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that began with a process called accretion. As each body increased in size, its interior heated up and evolved to become a terrestrial planet with a core, mantle and crust. Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets was later shaped and moulded through a poorly understood process known as “differentiation”.

With its sub-surface measurements and hyper-sensitive instruments, Insight greatly improves our understanding of differentiation. The mission confirms whether Mars’ core is solid or liquid, and determines why the crust is not divided into tectonic plates that drift like on Earth.* Following a technical issue reported in December 2015, the probe’s launch was postponed from March 2016 to May 2018. It touches down on Mars on 26th November 2018.*

nasa insight 2018 mars future timeline
Credit: NASA

The CHEOPS telescope is deployed to study exoplanets

This year, the European Space Agency (ESA) launches a new satellite to find exoplanets. Its focus of study is nearby star systems already known to host planets. The small CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite, called CHEOPS, operates in a Sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit at an altitude of 500 miles (800 km) and has a mission lifetime of 3.5 years. It is powerful and precise enough to form accurate measurements of a planet’s radius, as well as determining the likely density and internal structure. The mission provides unique targets for more detailed follow-up studies by the next generation of telescopes such as the ground-based European Extremely Large Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. Originally planned for launch in 2017, CHEOPS is delayed until the end of 2018.*

cheops satellite 2017
Credit: University of Bern/CERN

opens in London

Crossrail is a major new rail line built for London and southeast England. In
development since 1974, it is one of Europe’s largest ever transport projects – designed to boost London’s subway capacity
by over 10% and bringing widespread regenerative benefits.

The line
has a total length of 118 km (73 miles), which includes 42 km (26 miles) of tunnels. It runs from the county of Berkshire
in the west, through to Essex in the east, linking together all the main
economic hubs in the UK capital: Heathrow Airport, the West End, the City
of London and Canary Wharf. Nine-coach trains – each 200 metres (660 ft) long and carrying up to 1,500 people – run at
frequencies of 24 per hour at peak periods. These brand new, longer trains feature walk-through air-conditioned carriages, live travel information and free Wi-Fi.

The original
planned schedule was for the first trains to run during 2017. A Comprehensive Spending Review in 2010 – saving over £1bn of the estimated £16bn
projected costs – meant that the first trains to run on the central
section would be delayed until December 2018.* Crossrail is also named as the “Elizabeth Line” in honour of Queen Elizabeth II. In addition to the rail line, the project includes ten new state-of-the-art stations.

Click to enlarge

crossrail december 2018 timeline

Polio has been eradicated

Polio is a disease caused by a virus that enters through the mouth. Spread by poor sanitation and exposure to infected human stools, it can damage the nervous system, leading to paralysis and eventual death. During the first half of the 20th century, there was a dramatic rise in cases. Epidemics became regular events during summer months, affecting hundreds of thousands of people. It was especially prevalent among young children.

This provided impetus for a “Great Race” towards the development of a vaccine. Developed in the mid-1950s, polio vaccines began to reduce the global number of cases per year. The last naturally occurring cases in the United States were reported in 1979 and the entire Western Hemisphere was declared free of the disease by 1994.

However, polio continued to affect countries in Africa, Asia and elsewhere.* Vaccination efforts were stepped up – led by Rotary International, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO). New commitments were made by governments and philanthropists including Bill Gates,* enabling over a billion children to be vaccinated. By the end of 2018, polio has been eradicated from the world. New knowledge about the viruses, new technologies and tactics to reach the most vulnerable communities have consigned it to history.** This is only the second time that a human disease has been wiped out; the previous instance was smallpox in 1979.

polio eradication 2018


1 “By the year 2060, if we have not had an earthquake, we will have exceeded 85 percent of all the known intervals of earthquake recurrence in 10,000 years.” – Jay Patton
See Turbidite Event History — Methods and Implications for Holocene Paleoseismicity of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, USGS:

Accessed 1st January 2013.

2 “Geologists say it will be nothing like the United States has ever seen.”
See Hurricane Sandy Will Be Dwarfed by an Earthquake, The Daily Beast:

Accessed 1st January 2013.

3 “The Pacific Northwest has a long geological history of doing exactly what happened in Chile. There is an 80 percent chance the southern end of the fault off southern Oregon and Northern California could break in the next 50 years and produce a Megaquake.”
See Truth or Hype: Is Seattle Really at Risk for a Devastating Earthquake?, Seattle pi:

Accessed 1st January 2013.

4 Cascadia mega event, YouTube:

Accessed 1st January 2013.

5 Cascadia Tsunami, YouTube:

Accessed 1st January 2013.

6 Ugandans fear curse of oil wealth as it threatens to blight ‘pearl of Africa’, The Guardian:

Accessed 23rd January 2014.

7 The Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2014, Future Timeline Blog:

Accessed 23rd January 2014.

8 Big Quake “Guaranteed” to Hit California by 2037, National

Accessed 28th August 2009.

9 Delay for Nasa’s Tess planet-hunter, BBC News:

Accessed 17th April 2018.

10 Gravitational waves detected for the first time, Future Timeline Blog:

Accessed 7th January 2018.

11 EHT Status Update, December 15 2017, Event Horizon Telescope:

Accessed 7th January 2018.

12 Taking the First Picture of a Black Hole, ESO:

Accessed 7th January 2018.

13 2018 Will Be The Year Humanity Directly ‘Sees’ Our First Black Hole, Forbes:

Accessed 7th January 2018.

14 China to build new East Africa railway line, BBC:

Accessed 27th May 2014.

15 Hayabusa2, Wikipedia:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

16 As 100K Genomes Project Returns Patient Reports, NHS Prepares to Commission WGS for Diagnostics, GenomeWeb:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

17 DNA Sequencing Costs, National Human Genome Research Institute:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

18 $1,000 genome sequencing is finally here, Future Timeline Blog:

Accessed 26th December 2014.

19 See 2015-2019.

20 The 100,000 Genomes Project, Genomics England:

Accessed 26th December 2014.

21 See 2040.

22 NHS DNA scheme to fight cancer and genetic diseases, BBC:

Accessed 26th December 2014.

23 1st bus service at new Transbay Transit Center slips into mid-2018, San Francisco Chronicle:
Accessed 1st January 2018.

24 Delivering the Uk’s first NHS high energy proton beam therapy centre, The NHS:
Accessed 1st January 2018.

25 Proton beam cancer therapy ‘effective with fewer side effects’, BBC:

Accessed 15th February 2016.

26 Proton Therapy versus Radiation Therapy, YouTube:

Accessed 15th February 2016.

27 Toshiba: hard drives will be 40TB by 2020, SSDs will be 128TB by 2018, Geek:

Accessed 5th September 2015.

28 HAMR HDD capacities to scale from 4TB in 2016 to 100TB in 2025, Hexus:

Accessed 5th September 2015.

29 InSight, Wikipedia:

Accessed 28th December 2015.

30 InSight | Mars Exploration Program, NASA:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

31 CHEOPS mission homepage, Universität Bern:

Accessed 6th January 2018.

32 One year to go until beginning of Elizabeth line services that will transform travel across London, Crossrail official website:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

33 Polio epidemic warning for Africa, BBC:

Accessed 16th May 2013.

34 Bill Gates 2.0, CBS News:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

35 Global leaders support new six-year plan to deliver a polio-free world by 2018, World Health Organization:

Accessed 16th May 2013.

36 Poliomyelitis eradication, Wikipedia:

Accessed 1st January 2018.

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